International control is essential
Climate models predict that the Arctic could be ice-free during the summer months by the middle of the century, allowing access to previously unused fishing grounds. What sounds positive on the surface poses considerable risks to the fragile ecosystems of the Arctic region. Current international governance systems are not enough to counterbalance these developments and enable effective management of the Arctic fishery.
This article was featured in EUROFISH Magazine 6/2020.
The regulation of fisheries is an ancient practice dating back over 700 years.
Seven hundred years ago, on the island that is now New Zealand, the Maori people – the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand – practiced some of the earliest fisheries management in the world. Their consciousness of the ocean’s fragility materialized from their belief in the god of the sea, Tangaroa. In order to appease Tangaroa, the Maori made deliberate efforts to restrain from overfishing, and instead, extracted only what they needed; sometimes returning parts of their catch to the sea. Other island states in Oceania were also known to give certain fishing areas time to recover when signs of overfishing became apparent.
This article was featured in EUROFISH Magazine 5/2019.
WWF project brings alternative livelihoods to fishers in the Adriatic
For the past three years, WWF Adria, a regional WWF office for the Balkans with headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia, has been working in Telašćica Nature Park / Marine Protected Area (MPA), in the center of the Croatian coast. The MPA is becoming known as the place where, for the first time in Croatia, fishers have been involved in the design of the management plan for the protected area. The key objective is to create a model for sustainable fisheries in the Adriatic.
A network has been created between the fishers, government (Directorate of Fisheries), the park management, and WWF Adria to co-manage the fisheries. The network is part of the FishMPABlue2 project which is building good working relationships between MPA managers and fishers in 11 pilot sites in six Mediterranean countries. In Croatia, the project’s “co-management model” strives to develop effective governance measures with a positive impact on the environment and on the socio-economic levels of local fishing communities. Within the project, the fishers decided to create a no-take zone in the MPA themselves and substituted their nets with more selective ones to reduce fishing pressure and catch-per-unit-effort.
This article was featured in EUROFISH Magazine 5/2019.
The 5th International Arctic Forum was arranged in St. Petersburg, Russia on April 9-10, 2019. Titled Arctic: Territory of Dialogue, it brought together some 3 600 participants including top political figures, scientists, businesspeople, and NGOs. The forum comprised 33 sessions arranged into three broad themes: coastal territories, the open ocean, and sustainable development. Ekaterina Tribilustova from EUROFISH International Organisation moderated a session on promising areas in the Arctic fishing industry under the theme, sustainable development.
The Arctic is one of the most unique and primeval ecosystems in the world, and its exploration can be compared with investigation of the space system. Research and development of the Arctic is extremely difficult due to the inaccessibility of the region, the extremely harsh climate and the complexity of the work. Nevertheless, fisheries traditionally remain one of the main activities in the economy of the Arctic region. Present conditions demand the preservation of fisheries and a more reasonable, economic approach to the processing of fish products and transition to high value-added products. The conservation of the biodiversity of the Arctic seas, sustainable fisheries and aquaculture are essential to protect the fragile ecosystem of the region. The advance of aquaculture in the Arctic region requires a separate assessment. Important issues and objectives include development of marine terminals for the integrated servicing of fishing fleet vessels, enhancement of port infrastructure, the ability to deliver fishery products from the Far East along the Northern Sea Route, application of modern technologies for new fishing vessels and the construction of new processing plants in the northern territories.
Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU fishing for short) is one of the greatest threats to the sustainability of fishing, marine ecosystems, marine biodiversity, and human food security. Although international bodies and the UN regard illegal fishing as an environmental crime and the European Union has adopted a regulation to combat IUU fishing the problem has not been fully resolved because there are still gaps and loopholes.
Illegal, undocumented and unregulated fishing, also known as pirate fishing, has many facets. In deep-sea fishing, it is understood to mean all types of commercial fishing carried out without the necessary licence, in which the fishing quota authorised under the fishing licence is exceeded, or in which the quantities caught are not, not completely or incorrectly documented. However, it is also considered to be IUU fishing if a fishing vessel fishes in territorial waters of other nations without permission, or if it violates the fishing laws of that country, for example by ignoring fishing times and protected areas. The territorial waters of some West African countries, for example, are among the preferred fishing areas for pirate fishing. In none of these countries is there a strong fisheries control authority, so that the pirate vessels are not in much danger of being caught.
Higher profits through industrial and culinary usage
With the exception of trout, dorade and a few other fish species that are traditionally prepared on the bone, fillets or loins are today the order of the day where enjoyment of fish is concerned. But that doesn’t mean that processing waste and other remains that are often overlooked are worthless: indeed, they often contain valuable ingredients and – if these are processed and prepared correctly – they can definitely find interested buyers. Many of these fish parts are edible and some of them are even considered delicacies in certain regions of the world.
Preferences when it comes to taste are often contradictory and not easy to understand. Dietary preferences have undergone changes in the course of history. What might in one place be seen as waste can somewhere else be considered a culinary delight. In our part of the world no one would think of eating fish entrails, and even the dark strips of meat from the muscle along the lateral line of the fillet are frequently removed. At the same time a lot of these supposedly sensitive fish eaters enjoy eating slimy oysters without considering that they are swallowing a living animal complete with intestine, gills and other guts. What we know, use and appreciate as food is not only regulated by laws and requirements (for the purpose of food safety, for example) but is also influenced by traditions, culture or religion. That explains why by-products like skin, liver, roe and other internal organs are rarely seen on our plates although they are at least just as nutritious as the fillets. Even tolerant people will perhaps turn up their noses at frogs’ legs, scorpions, locusts or insects that are eaten as delicacies in other parts of the world. Our ancestors were much more robust with regard to their food. One only has to think of snipe that was roasted and eaten whole complete with its innards and bowel contents and was seen as the peak of culinary enjoyment. Today this rather dubious pleasure is forbidden in the EU for reasons of hygiene. An unnecessary taboo since most Europeans would probably be quite happy to do without it… With the exception perhaps of some obstinate Italians who in spite of the ban still can’t do without their “merdocchio”.
A number of institutions are involved in deciding how much fish can be harvested from the sea
Fishing quotas have an immediate impact on the players in the fisheries sector and the release of the numbers is closely watched by all concerned. The route by which raw data is converted into the precise figures that are published as fishing quotas is long, with inputs from several institutions, and gives an idea of the enormous significance attached to these numbers.
Fish, individually or in swarms, can usually be found in places offering them the best for their lives: where they find food, where it is safe to reproduce and survive as species. Such preferences, together with environmental conditions, may vary from year to year, and hence the number of fish coming together may vary as well. Fishermen know where to find the fish and are familiar with annual fluctuations. Fishing grounds, when seen as fish habitats, do not feature national borders, whereas fishing vessels carry the flags of their home ports. Fish stocks which are international by nature thus have national owners when turned into catches. The subsets of these fishable stocks allocated to and harvested by sovereign states are called fishing quotas.
Sustainability is a term which has rapidly become an integral part of our everyday vocabulary. Once something of a fringe concept, it is now a fundamental consideration in almost everything we do. Ultimately, this stems from an ever-increasing understanding that the natural resources we consume are far from inexhaustible. Essentially, if we don’t modify our consumption to allow these resources to replenish themselves, then they will simply disappear.
Speakers at the North Atlantic Seafood Conferences widely acknowledged that many of the drivers moulding the reform of the EU’s Common Fishery Policy (CFP) have come from outside the fisheries sector. Celebrity chefs, NGOs, and the press have clearly spoken against discards, and retailers have been flexing their muscles as they demand that their suppliers prove that their seafood comes from sustainable fisheries.
Up to now, violation of regulations within the fisheries sector was punished differently by the individual EU member states. Something that was seen as a minor offence in one country could bring with it tough penalties in another. With the new fisheries control regulation which has been in force since 1 January 2010 the EU created an instrument for protecting fish resources better, fighting unfair competition, and thereby securing the future existence of honest fishermen.