Aquaculture

Chapter Six: Waste water treatment

Farming fish in a recirculation system where the water is constantly reused does not make the waste from the fish production disappear. Dirt or excretions from the fish still have to end somewhere. The biological processes in the system will to a certain extent reduce the amount of organic compounds, because of simple biological degradation or mineralisation within the system. However, a significant load of organic sludge from the farm will still have to be dealt with.

Chapter 7: Disease

There are many examples of recirculation systems operating without any disease problems at all. In fact, it is possible to isolate a recirculation fish farm completely from unwanted fish pathogens. Most important is to make sure that eggs or fish stocked in the facility are absolutely disease free and preferably from a certified disease free strain. Make sure that the water used is disease free or sterilised before going into the system; it is far better to use water from a borehole, a well, or a similar source than to use water coming directly from the sea, river or lake. Also, make sure that no one entering the farm is bringing in any diseases, whether they are visitors or staff.

Gümüşdoğa A.S was established by Mr. Halil Milas in 1995 with the first facility of seabass and seabream farms in the Bodrum area of Turkey. The farm production capacity was initially 80 tonnes per year, a figure that increased continuously to the current 10,000 tonnes per year.

Against a backdrop of global economic uncertainty and food price volatility demand for fish and fishery products as a source of high-quality, affordable animal protein is rising steadily. From 1990 to 2008, per capita world fish consumption increased by 27 percent (from 14 kg in 1990 to 17 kg in 2008) despite a 26 percent growth in world population during this period. This increase in fish consumption is mainly attributed to aquaculture growth.

The GlobalG.A.P. Aquaculture Standard is a voluntary standard developed by a private sector body that sets criteria for legal compliance, food safety, workers’ welfare, animal welfare, and environmental and ecological care.

Salmon lice are probably one of the biggest threats to salmon farming at the moment. The available control methods are often not sufficient to effectively reduce lice infestation. In Norway radical measures are sometimes even considered, such as slaughtering whole salmon stocks or concerted action to leave farms unstocked. But might it be possible to solve the salmon louse problem biologically using “cleaner fish”?

Although fishmeal production in the two main producer countries Peru and Chile was 40% higher in 2011 than in the previous year this increase brought little relief to the situation on the aquafeed market. Fishmeal prices fell slightly but are still at a high level. And they will probably remain more or less the same, particularly since already in spring 2012 there were signs that raw materials availability for the fishmeal industry would probably be lower again this year.

Although work on the development of an artificial starter feed for fish and shrimp larvae has made considerable progress live feed continues to be indispensable in a lot of areas of aquaculture. Marine fish larvae, in particular, often have very high dietary requirements and during the first days of their lives have to be fed on Artemia larvae, rotifers or the even smaller ciliates. Producing this live feed is by no means easy.

Although OECD and FAO forecasts predict that in 2021 the growth rate of aquaculture will be only half its present level it will even then still be growing. This does not only apply to production volume but also to the number of produced species. Some species will probably remain niche products but others might succeed in conquering international markets. Which candidates are particularly promising and what affects their market chances?

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